[202][203], Early on 16 October, Marie Antoinette was declared guilty of the three main charges against her: depletion of the national treasury, conspiracy against the internal and external security of the State, and high treason because of her intelligence activities in the interest of the enemy; the latter charge alone was enough to condemn her to death. June 17, 2020, Marie Antoinette’s Husband – King Louis XVI. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. The Peace of Teschen, signed on 13 May 1779, ended the brief conflict, with the queen imposing French mediation at her mother's insistence and Austria's gaining a territory of at least 100,000 inhabitants—a strong retreat from the early French position which was hostile towards Austria. Four guards accompanied the queen wherever she went, and her bedroom door had to be left open at night. [72], A second visit from Joseph II, which took place in July 1781 to reaffirm the Franco-Austrian alliance and also to see his sister, was tainted by false rumours[56] that Marie Antoinette was sending money to him from the French treasury. A siren call even sweeter than her husband's voice roused Marie Antoinette from her malaise at court. Marie Antoinette was born the fifteenth of sixteen children in 1755 to the Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine (Carroll, 255). What about Siad Bare of Somalia ??? This gave the impression, partially justified, that the queen had sided with Austria against France. [68][69], Marie Antoinette's second pregnancy ended in a miscarriage early in July 1779, as confirmed by letters between the queen and her mother, although some historians believed that she may have experienced bleeding related to an irregular menstrual cycle, which she mistook for a lost pregnancy. When the affair was discovered, those involved (except de La Motte and Rétaux de Villette, who both managed to flee) were arrested, tried, convicted, and either imprisoned or exiled. He even went as far as exiling the Duke of Orléans, who was accused by the queen of fomenting trouble. [citation needed] The result of these two nominations was that Marie Antoinette's influence became paramount in government, and the new ministers rejected any major change to the structure of the old regime. The Boston Massacre: The American Revolution, Julius Caesar: History, Accomplishments and Facts. [101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108] Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. Marie Antoinette's position at court improved when, after eight years of marriage, she started having children. For instance, a writing table attributed to Riesener, now located at Waddesdon Manor, bears witness to Marie-Antoinette's desire to escape the oppressive formality of court life, when she decided to move the table from the Queen's boudoir de la Meridienne at Versailles to her humble interior, the Petit Trianon. [200] She and her lawyers were given less than one day to prepare her defense. [112] This change of the queen's position signaled the end of the Polignacs' influence and their impact on the finances of the Crown. Who was Marie Antoinette? Those on music, often dedicated to her, were the most read, though she also liked to read history. [187][188], On 21 September 1792, the fall of the monarchy was officially declared and the National Convention became the governing body of the French Republic. Some historians believe the outcome of the trial had been decided in advance by the Committee of Public Safety around the time the Carnation Plot (fr) was uncovered. [170] Moreover, the view that the unpopular queen was controlling the king further degraded the royal couple's standing with the people, which the Jacobins successfully exploited after their return from Varennes to advance their radical agenda to abolish the monarchy. Her health also began to deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities. They described amorous encounters with a wide range of figures, from the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XV. She accepted Necker's proposition to double the representation of the Third Estate (tiers état) in an attempt to check the power of the aristocracy. Her head was affixed on a pike and paraded through the city to the Temple for the queen to see. Maria Antonia spent her formative years between the Hofburg Palace and Schönbrunn, the imperial summer residence in Vienna,[4] where on 13 October 1762, when she was seven, she met Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, two months her junior and a child prodigy. King Louis and his family were sent back to Paris, the French capital. [80] De Mercy wrote to the Empress: "It is almost unexampled that in so short a time, the royal favor should have brought such overwhelming advantages to a family". In the wake of the French financial struggles, queen Antoinette lived lavishly to the vexation of the masses. As a result of the public perception that she had single-handedly ruined the national finances, Marie Antoinette was given the nickname of "Madame Déficit" in the summer of 1787. France extended their helping hands to the American colonists’ fight for Independence from the British, but their economy reached an unsustainable tipping point of bankruptcy. Mirabeau sincerely wanted to reconcile the queen with the people, and she was happy to see him restoring much of the king's powers, such as his authority over foreign policy, and the right to declare war. supprimés ou omis par Courtois...", "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette: Political Pornography and the Problem of the Feminine in the French Revolution", "Celebrating Marie-Antoinette on her birthday", "Marie Antoinette's silk shoe goes up for sale in Versailles", Story of Marie Antoinette with Primary Sources, Marie Antoinette's official Versailles profile, Online catalog of Marie Antoinette's personal reading library, Celebrating Marie-Antoinette blog article, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, Maria Christina, Princess of Transylvania, Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine, Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate, Maria Clementina, Hereditary Princess of Naples, Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Karoline Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Elisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz, Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio, Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily, Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria, Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria, Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Immaculata, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri, Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein, Princess Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution,, French people executed by guillotine during the French Revolution, People executed for treason against France, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2011, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 26. There had been several plots designed to help the royal family escape, which the queen had rejected because she would not leave without the king, or which had ceased to be viable because of the king's indecision. [2] Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduke Joseph and Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. The Brunswick Manifesto, issued on 25 July 1792, triggered the events of 10 August[183] when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly. [50] Nevertheless, following Joseph's intervention, the marriage was finally consummated in August 1777. They rode on his incompetence to cause confusion and eliminate him. Marie Antoinette and Louis later wrote to Joseph, thanking him for his help. She has been the subject of a number of books, films, and other media. 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